GROUPS OF WORDS:

On the basis of morphemes, words can be classified as follows:

  • primitive: no morpheme: pan, coche, leche, mar
  • prefixed: include a prefix (start of the word): -in,-a,-re,-des

Enterrar: desenterrar: verb
Juicio: prejuicio: noun
Moral: amoral: adjective
In-finito, a-moral, re-hacer, des-hacer

In spanish there are many Latin and Greek prefixes:

a: means privation: afónico
agro: means countryside: agricultura
andro: means man: andrógeno
peri: means outskirts: periferia
geo: means land: geología
teo: means God: teología
logo: means word: logopeda

  • derivatives: words that want a sufix (end of the word)

mes-illa, panad-ero, bell-eza

  • composed: words composed by more than one word: aguanieves, chupatintas
  • parasynthetic: formed by composition or derivation: quince-añ-ero

COMPOSITION OF WORDS:

It consists in extending the word through two procedures: composition and derivation

Sacacorchos: it is an instrument for taking out corks
Verdulero: persoa who sells vegetables

THE COMPOSITION:

Different procedures are involved in it:

  • through a pronominal sintagm: Letra de cambio, conejillo de Indias, silla de ruedas casa de huéspedes, olla a presión.
  • formed by a noun or adjective:  guardia civil, tinta china, pez espada, guerra civil, pájaro carpintero, sauce llorón.
  • combined by an hyphen: coche-cama, catalana-francés, químico-físico
  • formed by two nouns: bocamanga, casatienda, hierbabuena, aguardiente, latinoamericano, pelirrojo
  • formed by a verb and a noun: cascanueces, pasatiempo, malvivir, limpiabotas, abrelatas

Many different procedures for forming word do exist, as follows:

  1. adv+adj or noun: maleducado
  2. verb+adv: maleducar, maldecir, malmeter
  • abbreviation: d por don, s. por san, dr por doctor, zoo por zoológico, cine por cinematográfico, profe por profesor, bus por autobús

THE DERIVATION:

Combination of two elements. Some of the procedures are:

  • learned prefixes: biografía, televisión, videojuego, telefónica, fotográfico
  • suffix: adding a morpheme to a lexeme: crear–creación, creador; labrar–labrador, labriego, labranza; humano– humanidad, humanismo, humanista. it is important to remind that there is also the formation of adverbs ending in -mente:  agradable: agradablemente, amable: amablemente, correcto: correctamente
  • within the group of suffix names and adjectives are formed by connotations: the apreciatives ones, in order to express feelings: traditionally, they are called diminutives (-illo/illa, -ito/ita, -llín: pequeñillo, boquita, mesita, perrito, botellín.)or augmentatives (-azo/aza,-ón/-ona: casaza, perrazo, comilona, tazón.). Some augmentatives have a semantic importance like: feote, feúcho, muchachota, mujerzuela.
  • the suffix -ble is formed by starting with beber: bebible, comer: comestible
  • interfixed: elements that do not have a gramatical or a significative function. they are in the middle of the word: librito, perrito, carnicero, saltarín

LA PARASYNTHESIS:

Composition or creation of a word: it contains suffixes and prefixes: antibacteriano, regordete, precocinado.

THE ONOMATOPOEA:

It is the convertion of a sound into a word: kikiriki: canto del gallo, tictac: sonido del reloj….

Source

Are you interested in any Course?